Terre Haute is a city located in Vigo County, the western part of Indiana, the United States. located about 13km east of the border with Illinois, about 125km west of the capital Indianapolis, and at the west end of Eastern Standard Time. The population is 60,785 (Population census of 2010). The urban area, which spans five counties around Vigo County, has a population of 189,764. The name 'Telekot' means 'high ground' in French, but there is a town on a flat land in the Middle West with no unevenness. Also, there are not many French residents in the area.
City of Terre Haute
|Nickname: Crossroads of America|
|Slogan: "A Level Above"|
Right: the position of Bigo County in Indiana
Left: Cities and towns in Telekot County
|City||91.36 km2 (35.27 mi2)|
|land||89.46 km2 (34.54 mi2)|
|water surface||1.89 km2 (0.73 mi2)|
|Elevation||152 m (499 ft)|
|population||(as of 2010)|
|population density||679.5 people/km2 (1,759.8 people/mi2)|
|equal time||Eastern Standard Time (UTC-5)|
|daylight saving time||Eastern Daylight Time (UTC-4)|
|Official website: http://www.terrehaute.in.gov/|
In the early days, it developed as the center of pork processing industry. Soon after the Civil War, coal was produced around Telekot, and the city prospered in the coal industry and the iron manufacturing industry, and entertainment districts were formed. However, in the 1920s, the economic growth of the city stopped due to the influence of the Prohibition Act and the exhaustion of coal resources, and the city lost its status as an industrial city. Although it recovered during the World War II, it once again declined after the World War II.
In addition, before the interstate expressway network was developed in various parts of the United States after the mid-20th century, Telekots were a major traffic point. In the early days, the waterways of Telekot were the cornerstones of the water transport in the Wabash River. When the main character of transportation changed from a steamboat to a railway, and then to an automobile, the teleroute became a place where National Route 40, the east-west main line, and National Route 41, the north-south main line, crossed, and was called Crossroads of America (the intersection of the United States).
Telekot is also where federal prisons are located. In this prison, the federal execution is carried out.
In the middle of the 18th century, a group of French explorers who were exploring the Wabash River basin named the area, a plateau near the Wabash River, terre haute, which means "high ground" in French. It is thought that this was the basis of the name of the city, Telephoto today.
When the Temse War broke out in 1811, William Henry HARRISON built Fort Harrison near the Native American village of the Weir. In September of the following year, 1812, an estimated 600 Native American troops attacked Fort Harrison (the Battle of Fort Harrison), and Captain Zachary Taylor defended the fort and was the first American army to win a land battle in the United States and British War. The Weir were then driven out of the land, and the Telekot village was created in the ruins of the orchards and meadows owned by the Weir. In 1818, when Bigo County was established, Telekot became the location of the county office. Telekot was later promoted to a town in 1832 and to a city in 1853.
The early Telekot developed as the center of agriculture and pork processing industry, as well as a port of call for ships such as steamboats crossing the Wabash River. In 1835 to 1839, the construction work to extend the Camberland Road to the west of Indiana Province was carried out, and the headquarters of the United States Army Engineers was established in Telephoto under the direction of Major Cornelias Ogden. Ogden also brought some Westpoint graduates to Telekot. One of them, Chauncey Rose, built a Federal-style hotel named the Prairie House (The Prairie House, later renamed the Telekot House) at the corner of the Telekot Center, Wobash Avenue and the 7th Street. In 1849, the Wabash and Erie Canal opened up to Telekot, establishing an waterway to Lake Erie in Toledo, Ohio. In 1851, the Telekot and Indianapolis Railroad was opened, and Telekot established its position as a major traffic hub both on water and on land.
development of the coal industry
After the Civil War ended, the pork processing industry, which had been a major industry of telekote, declined. However, in 1867, when a coal vein was discovered in the nearby Clay County, the coal industry and the iron manufacturing industry flourished in Telekot. In addition, distilleries and beer breweries were built in the city, and horse racing tracks were established, and the local economy became prosperous at once. With the development of the regional economy, higher education institutions such as Indiana State Normal School (present-day Indiana State University) and Telephoto Industrial Science University (present-day Rose Harman Institute of Technology) were established in Telephoto, and they also developed culturally.
Also, because Telekot became the center of industry, labor unions became more active. In August 1881, the United States-Canada Vocational Union Federation (FOTLU), the American Labor Union (AFL), and the United Trade Union (AFL), the predecessor of the United States Federation of Labor Unions and Industrial Unions (AFL-CIO), were formed in Telephoto. It was also Telekot that gave birth to Eugene V. Debs, a labor activist who ran for the presidential election five times from the Socialist Party.
In May 1889, when oil was found in the center of Telekot, a boom occurred and it was called Terre Haute Oil Craze (Telekot Oil Madness). But unlike coal, which has prospered in Telekot, oil mining has not lasted long.
Along with the development of the local economy and industry, the public morals of the city were disrupted. In the 1890s, brothels started to build in the center of the city, and later the Akasen area was formed. In the heyday of the early twentieth century, 81 brothels stood in the red-line district of Telekot. Local newspapers called prostitutes in the Akasen area 'resorts.' The Akasen district, which was formed around this time, existed until redevelopment was conducted in the late 1960s.
decline and regeneration
In the 1920s, the development of the Telerhote started to be in decline. When the Temperance Law was enacted in 1919, distilleries and beer breweries in the city were forced to close down to one another, and the regional economy of Telekot was severely damaged. The depletion of coal resources and decline in the status of railways were driven into a corner and Telekot took the path to decline. As the city was on the verge of decline, the third general strike in the history of the United States occurred in Telephoto from July 22 to 23, 1935, and all industries and transportation in the city were halted. During World War II, the region's economy of Telekot recovered from the production of ordinary-time supplies supplied to the workers of nearby weapons factories, but after World War II ended, the region's economy of Telekot started to decline again. In 1960, Union Station, a symbol of railway traffic, was demolished. In the early 1970s, the Telephoto House, which was built as a luxury hotel in the early Telephoto House and became a symbol of the city, was closed down and abandoned for more than 30 years until it was demolished in 2005.
Even in the 2000s, telekots were often negative in the media. In 2003, Indianapolis local newspaper Indianapolis Star described the high unemployment rate, the stagnant salary levels, the departure of college graduates from their hometowns, the odors from factories, and the lack of overall culture, and called the telephoto a "model of stagnation."
However, in the 2010s, efforts to revitalize the telephoto have finally been approved. In 2010, the Indiana Department of Commerce elected Telekot Community of the Year, evaluating the redevelopment of downtown and the east coast of the Wabash River, massive health investments, continued growth of local and neighboring higher education institutions, and efforts to work with the public and private sectors.
23 seconds west longitude. Located about 13km east of the western edge of Indiana and Illinois, it is about 125km west of Indianapolis and about 270km east of St. Louis. The city stretches on the east bank of the Wabash River. The height above sea level in the center of the city is 152m.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Telephoto City has a total area of 91.36km² (35.27 mi²). 89.46km² (34.54mi²) is land and 1.89km² (0.73mi²) is water. The water area accounts for 2.07% of the total area.
The Telekot climate is continental, but it is a peaceful place in the Midwest. The warmest July monthly average of 24.5°C and the highest average of 29°C were above 30°C during the day. The average temperature in the coldest January is three degrees Celsius below freezing point, and it is over 0°C during the day, but it is kept falling below freezing point at night. The rainfall amounts from spring to summer and from April to July, reaching around 100-120mm per month. Although it is a little dry in winter, from December to February, some 7-12cm of snow is seen on a month. Annual rainfall is about 1,050mm. In the climate division of Keppenh, Telekot is the climate on the right boundary lines of Warm Wet Climate (Cfa) and Subtropical Wet Climate (Dfa).
|Mean Temperature (°C)||-3.0||-0.7||5.3||12.1||17.4||22.4||24.5||23.4||19.7||13.2||6.2||-0.3||11.7|
Telekot has a mayoral system. The mayor is the chief executive officer of the city, and has the right to appoint all the posts under state law or municipal ordinance, and the right to hire city officials. In addition, the mayor has the authority to either enforce the Municipal Assembly's own Ordinance or to nominate the person to enforce it. The mayor is elected by a vote from all the cities, and his term of office is four years from 12:00 a.m. on January 1, the following year, and the city's administrative functions are placed under the mayor's offices: public works and safety, police, fire services, legal, finance, regional plans, city offices, maintenance of city offices, sewage treatment, sewage treatment, graveyard, park and recreation, technology, street, redevelopment and public transportation.
The city assembly, the city's legislative body, consists of nine members. Six of them are selected from six city districts one by one, and the other three are selected from all cities. Telekot also has a city court, which has all the powers prescribed in state law, as a city judicial body.
The City Clerk shall be responsible for the preparation and keeping of the minutes of the City Council, the preparation and keeping of the documents stipulated in the Act, and the keeping of the City Chapter. He also served as a secretary at the city court. City clerks, like mayor, were elected by vote from all the cities, and their terms of office, like mayor, were four years from 12:00 a.m. on January 1 of the following year.
The Terehote Federal Prison is located about three kilometers south of the city, along the State Route 63. Two types of prisons, high and medium security, are located on the premises of the Federal Prison, and the High Security Prison has facilities to carry out federal executions (the death penalty) and special detention centers to hold death row prisoners. In 2001, the Telehoto federal prison carried out the death penalty for Timothy McVey, the principal offender of the Oklahoma City Federal Government bomb attack, the first for 38 years by the federal government.
The nearest commercial airport to Telekot is Indianapolis International Airport, southwest of Indianapolis, IATA: IND). From the center of the Teleroute, it takes about 108km east of the station via the interstate expressway I-70, and it takes more than an hour to drive. The Telekot International Airport (IATA: There is a HUF, which is named "International Airport," but currently commercial regular passenger service is not available (after all, American Eagle Airlines (currently: Envoy Air - English: Envoy Air Inc.) and other Chicago Airlines are positioned as the major airports for the arrival and departure and transportation of private and chartered aircraft. The airport is based on the Indiana Air Force's 181st Information Air Force (CIA) Air Force.
I-70, a main line that crosses the continent from Maryland to Utah, runs east-west through the city's south. There are two entrances from this expressway to a telephoto. National Route 40, which runs almost parallel to the I-70, is Wobash Avenue, the main east-west street in Telekot City. National Route 41 is a 3rd Street running north-south in the western part of the city, and crosses National Route 40 in downtown. When these national routes were designated in 1926, 7th Street was designated as National Route 41. Before the completion of the interstate expressway network, the intersection of the two national highways, which were the east-west and north-south lines, is called Crossroads of America (the intersection of the U.S.) and the intersection of Wobash Avenue and the 7th Street, and Telekot City itself is also called this nickname.
Many of the streets in the city have numbers on the north-south streets, and the number increases as you leave the Wabash River, and the streets are divided into N (north) and S (south) on the border of Wabash Avenue. On the other hand, on the street running east-west, there is a street with a partial number (from 1st Avenue to 8th Avenue) north of the downtown, but most of them have names, and there is no distinction between E (east) and W (west).
A joint bus terminal called the Cherry Street Multimodal Transit Facility is located on the campus of Indiana State University. The terminal is the center of the 11-route bus network operated by the Telephoto Transit Utility, which is a public transit system in the city. The terminal also serves as the Greyhound bus terminal, where GM's long-distance bus service, which connects St. Louis and Indianapolis Columbus Pittsburgh New York, arrives and departs.
Indiana State University (ISU) has a 235-acre (about 950,000m²) campus in downtown Telekot. The school was founded as the Indiana State Normal School in 1865, renamed to the Indiana State Students College in 1929 and then to the Indiana State College in 1961, and then renamed to the present Indiana State University in 1965. The university has five faculties, namely the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Management, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Nursing, Health and Human Science, and Faculty of Engineering, and has more than 80 major programs with about 9,400 students in the faculty and about 11,500 students in the whole school.
About eight kilometers east of Wabash Avenue from downtown, and the campus of Rose Harman Institute of Technology (RIT) is located at the east end of the city. Founded in 1874, Dogaku is a private university specialized in the fields of engineering, mathematics and natural science, and has received bachelor's and master's degrees. The university has an education with a small number of students, about 1,900 students, and a ratio of students to professors is 12:1. It is ranked number one in the U.S. among all engineering-type colleges, which do not give doctoral degrees.
St. Mary's University of the Woods has a campus on the other side of the Wabash River in the northwestern suburb of Telekot. The school was founded in 1840 at Liberal Arts College, the oldest Catholic women's university in the United States. The school provides a small-sized education, which can be said to be a characteristic of liberal arts colleges, with approximately 1,700 students and 9:1 ratio of students to professors, and approximately 90% of all lectures are given with less than 20 students. The school is ranked 25th among the District Liberal Arts College in the Midwest.
In addition to these four-year colleges, Ivy Tech Community College, a technology community college with a campus in 30 cities in Indiana, has a Telephoto campus in the south of the city.
The K-12 course in Telekot is covered by public schools under the jurisdiction of the Bigo County Public School Corporation. The school district has 18 elementary schools (students in the fifth grade before graduation), six middle schools (students in the sixth grade and eighth grade), three high schools (students in the ninth grade and twelfth grade) and two alternative high schools, and has about 16,000 children and students. The Tudor Revival style of the Woodrow Wilson Junior High School belonging to the school district was designated a National Register of Historic Places in 1996.
The 100-meter section between Wabash Avenue and Ohio Street on the south of the Indiana State University campus and the 7th Street is called the Arts Corridor (Art Corridor). The Swop Art Museum, located in this 'art corridor', was built in 1942, in praise of Sheldon Swope, a jeweler who made a fortune in Telekot, and named it after him. The collection is mainly American art works from the middle of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, including Edward HOPPER, Grant Wood, Thomas Hart Benton, and Andy Warhol. The museum also focuses on introducing works by artists in Indiana. In addition to the Swappe Art Museum, there are two galleries in the 'Art Corridor.' On the first Friday of each month, local artists gather at the Swop Art Museum and in galleries near the 'Art Corridor' to exhibit their work of art, to play music, to provide wine and food and drink, and to exchange with them.
The Art Center is located in the south-west corner of the Indiana State University campus, 7th Street and Chestnut Street. The University Gallery, established within the Center in 1997, is part of the education and research of the Faculty of Art, and is a place where students exhibit their works and professors manage their works. This gallery is open to the public for free.
The Candles Holocaust Museum and Education Center are located on 3rd Street, south of downtown. The museum was built in 1995 by Eva Moses Ko, the founder of the Candles (CANDLES, Children of Auschwitz Nazi Deadly Lab Experiments Survivors), who is a survivor of a human body experiment on the twins held by Joseph Mengellet at the Auschwitz-Bilkenau concentration camp during the Holocaust by Nazi Germany. The mission of the museum is to try to remove hatred and prejudice from the world through the exhibition and education of things related to the Holocaust, and to enlighten the world about the power of forgiveness.
The Bigo County History Association has established an office after taking over the Italian-style mansion built in 1868, and it has a museum in Telekot and its surrounding area that displays items related to the history of the 1800s and has been open to the public for free. The Telekot Children's Museum, located at the corner of Wabash Avenue and 8th Street, provides a space for science and technology education mainly for children in western Indiana and eastern Illinois.
- Clabber Girl - Famous nationwide baking powder, baking soda and corn starch company
- Coca cola bottle design
The population of each county that forms the urban area of Telekot is as follows (National Census of 2010).
- Telekot metropolitan area
urban population transition
Below is a graph and table showing the population transition from 1850 to 2010 in Telekot City.
Telephoto has formed a sister-city relationship with Tajimi City (Japan and Gifu Prefecture). Since the alliance was established in 1962, the two cities have deepened exchanges in various ways, and since 1988, they have also started exchange programs for junior high school students. In 1997, an event called the "Sister Summit" was held in Tajimi City to commemorate the 35th anniversary of the sister-city alliance.
Although it is not an official sister city, Telekot has exchanges with Filingen-Schveningen (Germany), where high school students exchange their studies.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i History of Terre Haute, Indiana. United States History.
- ^ 1849 Retrospect of Terre Haute. Based on Indiana Gazetteer, published by E. Chamberlain. Indiana County History Preservation Society.
- ^ a b c American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. 2011
- ^ McCormick, Mike. Terre Haute: Queen City of the Wabash. p.28. Arcadia Publishing. November 1, 2005.
- ^ Wabash and Erie Canal. United States History.
- ^ McCormick, Mike. Historical perspective: Only three downtown oil wells active five years after the craze of 1889. Tribune Star. February 4, 2001.
- ^ McCormick, Mike. Historical perspective: Terre Haute's Red Light District was no secret. Tribune Star. July 29, 2001.
- ^ "General Strike", Index of Historical Events. Vigo County Public Library.
- ^ Terre Houte. Winter 2005, Vol.80, No.4, Indiana Business Review. Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. 2005
- ^ Heikens, Norm. Terre Haute is a model of Stagnation. Indianapolis Star. March 17, 2003.
- ^ Foulkes, Arthur Terre Haute named 2010 Indiana Chamber 'Community of the Year'. Tribune Star. September 1, 2010.
- ^ 2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files for Places - Indiana. United States Census Bureau.
- ^ a b Historical weather for Terre Haute, Indiana, United States of America. Weatherbase.com.
- ^ Terre Haute City Code. Sec. 2-6 thru to 2-14. City of Terre Haute. 2012. (PDF File Download Page)
- ^ Terre Haute City Code. Sec. 2-35 thru to 2-52.
- ^ Terre Haute City Code. Sec. 3-1 thru to 3-6.
- ^ Terre Haute City Code. Sec. 3-40 thru to 3-44.
- ^ Terre Haute City Code. Sec. 2-20 thru to 2-23, 3-1, 3-44.
- ^ City Clerk's Office. City of Terre Haute.
- ^ FCC Terre Haute Archived September 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. Federal Bureau of Prisons.
- ^ USP Terre Haute. Federal Bureau of Prisons.
- ^ Driving directions to IND. Yahoo!Map.
- ^ FAA Airport Master Record for HUF. (PDF file) Federal Aviation Administration. April 5, 2012.
- ^ National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems. 2011-15 years (PDF files): Appendix A. p.A-38. Federal Aviation Administration. October 4, 2010.
- ^ Grundin, Karen. Crossroads of America. Tribune-Star.
- ^ Cherry Street Transit Facility Archived December 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine... Department of Redevelopment, City of Terre Haute.
- ^ a b Indiana State University Canvas Map. Indiana State University. May 2011. (PDF file)
- ^ Terre Haute Transit Utility. Transit Department, City of Terre Haute.
- ^ Terre Haute, IN. Greyhound.
- ^ a b Indiana State University. U.S. News & World Report: America's Best Colleges. 2011
- ^ History and Traditions. Indiana State University.
- ^ Undergraduate Programs: Majors. Indiana State University.
- ^ Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Rankings. U.S. News & World Report: America's Best Colleges. 2011
- ^ About the College. St. Mary-of-the-Woods College.
- ^ St. Mary-of-the-Woods College. U.S. News & World Report: America's Best Colleges. 2011
- ^ Campus Information. Ivy Tech Community College.
- ^ School Directory. Vigo County School Corporation.
- ^ a b Dennis, Shana. Arts Corridor brings artistic flair to Terre Haute. Indiana Statesman. Indiana State University. August 16, 2010.
- ^ Swope Art Museum. United States History.
- ^ Kash, Steve. The Arts Scene: First Friday in Terre Haute Archived January 11, 2013, at Archive.is. Tribune Star. September 23, 2009.
- ^ Information. University Art Gallery, Indiana State University.
- ^ History of CANDLES. CANDLES Holocaust Museum.
- ^ Museum Information. CANDLES Holocaust Museum.
- ^ Welcome to the Vigo County Historical Society and Museum!. Vigo County Historical Society.
- ^ History and Mission. Terre Haute Children's Museum.
- ^ https://www.clabbergirl.com/
- ^ https://www.cocacola.co.jp/stories/history-of-the-coca-cola-bottle_2
- ^ Sister Cities International - Indiana State Chapter Archived March 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Tajimi City, sister city, Terra Hod City. Tajimi City, Civic Culture Division
- ^ Loughlin, Sue. German students experience life in the Wabash Valley. The Tribune-Star. November 7, 2010.
- City of Terre Haute, Indiana - Official City Site
- Terre Haute Convention and Visitor's Bureau
- Terre Haute Tribune-Star
- Vigo County Public Library
- Hometown: A Journey Through Terre Haute, IN - 1920s Telephoto Documentary
- Prohibition in Terre Haute - A video (YouTube) describing the effects of the Temperance Act on Telekots
- Tajimi City: A sister city of Terahoto City: Introduction of telehots at the official site of Tajimi City (Note: In Tajimi City, the expression 'terahoto' is used.)
- Terre Haute, Indiana - City-Data.com
- Terre Haute, IN - Yahoo!Map Map